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Perforce 2009.2: P4 User's Guide

Chapter 8
This chapter provides details about using p4 commands in scripts and for reporting purposes. For a full description of any particular command, consult the Perforce Command Reference, or issue the p4 help command.
Common flags used in scripting and reporting
The following command-line flags enable you to specify settings on the command line and in scripts. For full details, refer to the description of global options in the Perforce Command Reference.
-c client_workspace
Causes all output (and batch input for form commands with -i) to be formatted as marshaled Python dictionary objects.
-p server:port
-P password
Specifies the user password if any. If you prefer your script to log in before running commands (instead of specifying the password every time a command is issued), use the p4 login command. For example:
Prepends a descriptive field (for example, text:, info:, error:, exit:) to each line of output produced by a Perforce command.
-u user
-x argfile
Reads arguments, one per line, from the specified file. If argfile is a single hyphen (-), then standard input is read.
Scripting with Perforce forms
If your scripts issue p4 commands that require the user to fill in a form, such as the p4 client and p4 submit commands, use the the -o flag to write the form to standard output and the -i flag to read the edited form from standard input.
For example, to create a job using a script on UNIX:
Issue the p4 job -o > temp1 command to write a blank job specification into a text file.
sed 's/<enter description here>/Crash when exiting./' temp1 > temp2
Issue the p4 job -i < temp2 command to save the job.
To accomplish the preceding without a temporary file, issue the following command:
p4 job -o | sed 's/<enter description here>/Crash when exiting./' | p4 job -i
The commands that display forms are:
p4 submit (use p4 change -o to create changelist, or p4 submit -d "A changelist description" to supply a description to the default changelist during changelist submission.)
File reporting
The following sections describe commands that provide information about file status and location. The following table lists a few basic and highly-useful reporting commands.
Preview of p4 sync results
Displaying file status
To display information about single revisions of files, issue the p4 files command. This command displays the locations of the files in the depot, the actions (add, edit, delete, and so on) performed on those files at the specified revisions, the changelists in which the specified file revisions were submitted, and the files' types. The following example shows typical output of the p4 files command:
//depot/README#5 - edit change 6 (text)
The p4 files command requires one or more filespec arguments. Regardless of whether you use local, client, or depot syntax to specify the filespec arguments, the p4 file command displays results using depot syntax. If you omit the revision number, information for the head revision is displayed. The output of p4 files includes deleted revisions.
The following table lists some common uses of the p4 files command.
For depots containing numerous files, you can maximize performance by avoiding commands that refer to the entire depot (//depot/...) when not required. For best performance, specify only the directories and files of interest.
p4 files @clientname
p4 files //clientname/...
p4 files filespec
p4 files filespec#rev
Specified files at the time a changelist was submitted, regardless of whether the files were submitted in the changelist
p4 files filespec@changenum
p4 files filespec@labelname
Displaying file revision history
To display the revision history of a file, issue the p4 filelog filespec command. The following example shows how p4 filelog displays revision history.
... #35 change 627 edit on 2001/11/13 by [email protected] (text) 'Handle platform variants better'
... #34 change 598 edit on 2001/10/24 by [email protected] (text) 'Reverse previous attempt at fix'
... ... branch into //depot/release/jam/2.2/src/jam.c#1
... #33 change 581 edit on 2001/10/03 by [email protected] (text) 'Version strings & release notes'
To display the entire description of each changelist, specify the -l flag.
Listing open files
To list the files that are currently opened in a client workspace, issue the p4 opened filespec command. The following line is an example of the output displayed by the p4 opened command:
//depot/dev/main/jam/fileos2.c- edit default change (text)
The following table lists some common uses of the p4 opened command.
p4 opened -c changelist
p4 opened filespec
Displaying file locations
To display information about the locations of files, use the p4 where, p4 have, and p4 sync -n commands:
You can use these commands with or without filespec arguments.
The following table lists some useful location reporting commands.
p4 have filespec
Displaying file contents
To display the contents of a file in the depot, issue the p4 print filespec command. This command prints the contents of the file to standard output or to a specified output file, with a one-line banner that describes the file. To suppress the banner, specify the -q flag. By default, the head revision is displayed, but you can specify a file revision.
p4 print filespec
p4 print -q filespec
p4 print filespec@changenum
Displaying annotations (details about changes to file contents)
To find out which file revisions or changelists affected lines in a text file, issue the p4 annotate command.
By default, p4 annotate displays the file line by line, with each line preceded by a revision number indicating the revision that made the change. To display changelist numbers instead of revision numbers, specify the -c flag.
Example: Using p4 annotate to display changes to a file
A file is added (file.txt#1) to the depot, containing the following lines:
This is a text file.
The second line has not been changed.
The third line has not been changed.
The third line is deleted and the second line edited so that file.txt#2 reads:
This is a text file.
The second line is new.
The output of p4 annotate and p4 annotate -c look like this:
//depot/files/file.txt#3 - edit change 153 (text)
1: This is a text file.
2: The second line is new.
//depot/files/file.txt#3 - edit change 153 (text)
151: This is a text file.
152: The second line is new.
The first line of file.txt has been present since revision 1, which was submitted in changelist 151. The second line has been present since revision 2, which was submitted in changelist 152.
To show all lines (including deleted lines) in the file, use p4 annotate -a as follows:
//depot/files/file.txt#3 - edit change 12345 (text)
1-3: This is a text file.
1-1: The second line has not been changed.
1-1: The third line has not been changed.
2-3: The second line is new.
The first line of output shows that the first line of the file has been present for revisions 1 through 3. The next two lines of output show lines of file.txt present only in revision 1. The last line of output shows that the line added in revision 2 is still present in revision 3.
You can combine the -a and -c options to display all lines in the file and the changelist numbers (rather than the revision numbers) at which the lines existed.
Monitoring changes to files
To track changes to files as they occur, you can use the Perforce change review daemon, which enables Perforce users to specify files and directories of interest and receive email when a changelist that affects the specified files is submitted. For details about administering the review daemon, refer to the Perforce System Administrator's Guide and to the description of the p4 review command in the Perforce Command Reference.
The following table lists commands that display information about the status of files, changelists, and users. These commands are often used in review daemons.
p4 reviews filespec
p4 users username
Changelist reporting
The p4 changes command lists changelists that meet search criteria, and the p4 describe command lists the files and jobs associated with a specified changelist. These commands are described below.
Listing changelists
To list changelists, issue the p4 changes command. By default, p4 changes displays one line for every changelist known to the system. The following table lists command-line flags that you can use to filter the list.
The last n changelists
p4 changes -s pending
p4 changes -s submitted
p4 changes filespec
That affect specified files, including changelists that affect files that were later integrated with the named files
That affect specified files, including only those changelists between revisions m and n of these files
p4 changes filespec#m,#n
That affect specified files at each revision between the revisions specified in labels lab1 and lab2
p4 changes filespec@lab1,@lab2
p4 changes @date1,@date2
p4 changes @date1,@now
Listing files and jobs affected by changelists
To list files and jobs affected by a specified changelist, along with the diffs of the changes, issue the p4 describe command. To suppress display of the diffs (for shorter output), specify the -s flag. The following table lists some useful changelist reporting commands.
p4 opened -c changenum
p4 describe changenum
Files and jobs affected by a particular changelist, passing the context diff flag to the underlying diff program
The state of particular files at a particular changelist, regardless of whether these files were affected by the changelist
p4 files filespec@changenum
For more commands that report on jobs, see Job reporting.
Label reporting
To display information about labels, issue the p4 labels command. The following table lists some useful label reporting commands.
p4 files @labelname
p4 sync -n @labelname
Branch and integration reporting
The following table lists commonly used commands for branch and integration reporting.
p4 files filespec
p4 filelog filespec
The revisions of a specified file, recursively including revisions of the files from which it was branched
p4 resolve [args] -n [filespec]
p4 resolved [filespec]
p4 integrate [args] -n [filespec]
Job reporting
Listing jobs
To list jobs, issue the p4 jobs command. The following table lists common job reporting commands.
p4 jobs filespec
Jobs that were fixed by changelists that contain specific files, including changelists that contain files that were later integrated into the specified files
p4 jobs -i filespec
Listing jobs fixed by changelists
Any jobs that have been linked to a changelist with p4 change, p4 submit, or p4 fix are referred to as fixed (regardless of whether their status is closed). To list jobs that were fixed by changelists, issue the p4 fixes command.
The following table lists useful commands for reporting fixes.
p4 fixes -c changenum
p4 fixes filespec
all fixes associated with specified files, including changelists that contain files that were later integrated with the specified files
p4 fixes -i filespec
System configuration reporting
The commands described in this section display Perforce users, client workspaces, and depots.
Displaying users
The p4 users command displays the user name, an email address, the user's "real" name, and the date that Perforce was last accessed by that user, in the following format:
bruno <[email protected]_ws> (bruno) accessed 2005/03/07
dai <[email protected]_ws> (Dai Sato) accessed 2005/03/04
earl <[email protected]_ws> (Earl Ashby) accessed 2005/03/07
gale <[email protected]_ws> (Gale Beal) accessed 2001/06/03
hera <[email protected]_ws> (Hera Otis) accessed 2001/10/03
ines <[email protected]_ws> (Ines Rios) accessed 2005/02/02
jack <[email protected]> (jack) accessed 2005/03/02
mei <[email protected]_ws> (Mei Chang) accessed 2001/11/14
ona <[email protected]_ws> (Ona Birch) accessed 2001/10/23
quinn <[email protected]_ws> (Quinn Cass) accessed 2005/01/27
raj <[email protected]_ws> (Raj Bai) accessed 2001/07/28
vera <[email protected]_ws> (Vera Cullen) accessed 2005/01/15
Displaying workspaces
To display information about client workspaces, issue the p4 clients command, which displays the client workspace name, the date the workspace was last updated, the workspace root, and the description of the workspace, in the following format.
Client bruno_ws 2005/03/07 root c:\bruno_ws ''
Client dai-beos-locust 2002/10/03 root /boot/home/src ''
Client earl-beos-aspen 2002/04/15 root /boot/src ''
Client earl-dev-beech 2002/10/26 root /home/earl ''
Client earl-dev-guava 2002/09/08 root /usr/earl/development ''
Client earl-dev-yew 2004/11/19 root /tmp ''
Client earl-mac-alder 2002/03/19 root Macintosh HD:earl ''
Client earl-os2-buckeye 2002/03/21 root c:\src ''
Client earl-qnx-elm 2001/01/17 root /src ''
Client earl-tupelo 2001/01/05 root /usr/earl ''
Listing depots
To list depots, issue the p4 depots command. This command lists the depot's name, its creation date, its type (local, remote, or spec), its host name or IP address (if remote), the mapping to the local depot, and the system administrator's description of the depot.
For details about defining multiple depots on a single Perforce server, see the Perforce System Administrator's Guide.
Sample script
The following sample script parses the output of the p4 fstat command to report files that are opened where the head revision is not in the client workspace (a potential problem).
Example: Sample shell script showing parsing of p4 fstat command output
# Usage: files
# Displays files that are open when the head revision is not
# on the client workspace
if [ $# -ne 1 ]
     $echo "Usage: $0 files"
     $exit 1
$p4 fstat -Ro $1 | while read line
     name=`$echo $line | $sed 's/^[\. ]\+\([^ ]\+\) .*$/\1/'`
     value=`$echo $line | $sed 's/^[\. ]\+[^ ]\+ \(.*\)$/\1/'`
     if [ "$name" = "depotFile" ]
     elif [ "$name" = "headRev" ]
     elif [ "$name" = "haveRev" ]
         if [ $headRev != $haveRev ]
             $echo $depotFile

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Perforce 2009.2: P4 User's Guide
Copyright 2005-2009 Perforce Software.