6 Levels of Autonomous Driving
July 22, 2020

What are the 6 Levels of Autonomous Driving

Performance
Static Analysis

Over the past several years, autonomous driving features — such as adaptive cruise control, environmental detection and other advanced driver assistance systems —have steadily become more common. This has allowed autonomous driving technology to be clearly measured along a scale.

There are six levels of autonomous driving. Here we explain how each of the six levels of autonomous driving are classified.

What are the 6 Levels of Autonomous Driving

The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) defines six levels of driving automation, which range from Level 0 (completely manual) to Level 5 (completely autonomous).

Level 0 — No Driving Automation

Most of the cars currently on the road are manual, which makes them Autonomous Driving Level 0.

For these cars, the driver is responsible for all the real-time functions required to operate the car. However, there are some automated systems in place at this level to help the driver, including the emergency braking system and standard cruise control.

Level 1 — Driver Assistance

While the majority of the cars on the road are manual, some newer models feature automated driving assisted systems, such as adaptive cruise control and lane control assist. These features help ensure the overall safety of the car and driver. However, the driver is still very much in charge and controls the essential driving functions, such as steering and braking. 

Level 2 — Partial Automation

Advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) are a key feature of Autonomous Driving Level 2. Level 2 cars can brake automatically, accelerate, and take over steering. However, an Autonomous Driving Level 2 car is not fully automated as a driver continues to remain in control and must always pay attention to traffic.

Level 3 — Conditional Automation

With an automated driving system (ADS), an Autonomous Driving Level 3 car is able to drive itself, but only under certain conditions, for example, long distances on motorways. At this Autonomous Driving level, it is not necessary to always have both hands on the wheel, but the driver must always be ready to take back control if the conditions change.

Level 4 — High Automation

Autonomous Driving Level 4 cars can operate in a self-driving mode. This means that even complex circumstances, the Autonomous Driving Level 4 car is capable of handling the majority of driving situations without any input from the driver. However, a driver still can manually override the self-driving mode and take control of the car.

Even though there are a few Autonomous Driving Level 4 cars currently on the road (with more likely on the way), legislation and infrastructure have yet to catch up with the technology. For these reasons, Autonomous Driving Level 4 cars are often restricted to limited areas and speeds.

Level 5 — Full Automation

Autonomous Driving Level 5 cars are fully automated and are capable of handling all driving responsibilities in all road conditions. At this Autonomous Driving level, there is no need for a driver.

Even though much of the hardware and software components for an Autonomous Driving Level 5 car exist, it will most likely still be a few years until the general public sees one on the road.

How to Ensure Functional Safety in Every Level of Autonomous Driving

For each autonomous driving level, it is essential that you ensure that the code is safe, secure, and reliable. The easiest and most efficient way to achieve this goal is by using a static code analyzer — like Helix QAC — to help enforce both automotive coding guidelines — such as MISRA and AUTOSAR — and functional safety standards — such as ISO 26262,

By using Helix QAC, you are able to apply coding guidelines to verify that your code meets the necessary safety standard requirements — regardless of the autonomous driving level.

See how simple it is to use Helix QAC to ensure functional safety at every autonomous driving level.

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